The term “amendment” refers to changing or altering existing legal provisions. The country’s laws must be revised as time passes. They can’t be rigid and stable. Changes in legal provisions are a strong indicator of progress. Many significant constitutional amendments have completely transformed the shape of a statute or a specific provision.
Important Amendments for CLAT 2024
Aspirants for competitive exams should be familiar with the articles of the Indian Constitution. The Indian Constitution has 448 articles (originally, 395 articles were there). The legislatures, executive, Schedules, Parts of the Indian Constitution, Constitutional Bodies, Statutory Bodies, Fundamental Rights, and more are all covered in each set of articles.
Important Amendments of the Indian Constitution
The constitution of India is neither strict nor flexible. Article 368 of the Indian Constitution grants Parliament the authority to change it, subject to the ‘Basic structure of the Constitution.’ There are three methods for doing so:
- By simple majority
- By special majority
- By special majority with ratification by half of the states.
In the General Studies sections, Indian Politics is an essential topic. Questions about Amendments to the Indian Constitution are posed in the GS part of every competitive test. A complete list of “Important Amendments to the Indian Constitution in English” can be found below.
1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951
It was the first amendment passed after India gained independence and became a republic. Part III of the Constitution included the addition of Article 15 clause 4 and Article 19 clause 6.
15th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1963
The retirement age of a High Court judge was raised from 60 to 62 years as a result of this alteration.
21st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1967
The Sindhi language was added to the Constitution’s Eighth Schedule as a regional language in this amendment.
24th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971
The purpose of this amendment was to overturn the ruling in Golaknath’s case. Parliament now has the power to modify fundamental rights or any element of the Constitution, according to the amendment. Article 368 gives the parliament the power to change or amend any article of the Constitution.
42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976
The mini-Constitution is another name for this amendment. By adding the words ‘SOCIALIST,’ ‘SECULAR,’ and ‘INTEGRITY’ to the preamble of the Constitution, this amendment made a significant alteration. With this change, the President was required to operate with the council of ministers’ assistance and recommendations. In addition, the Constitution was amended to include a crucial Part IVA as Fundamental Duties.
44th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1978
The right to property was no longer a fundamental right under Part III of the Constitution after this change. Under Article 300A, the right to property is now simply a legal and constitutional right.
There are three criteria in Article 352 for declaring a national emergency in India. The terms ‘armed rebellion’ was swapped for the words ‘internal disturbance’ on the ground. After forwarding the advice to the council of ministers for reconsideration, this modification made it mandatory for the President to follow it. The declaration of an emergency is now subject to the court’s scrutiny and judicial review.
58th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1987
The people of India now have access to an authentic version of the Constitution in Hindi as a result of this modification.
61st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1988
The election pattern in India was altered as a result of this modification. The voting age was lowered from 21 to 18 years old.
73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992
Part XI of the Constitution was inserted to deal with the Panchayati Raj System in India.
74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992
Part IXA of the Constitution was added for municipalities as a result of this change.
77th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1995
This amendment inserted clause 4A to Article 16 of the Constitution, which allows scheduled castes and scheduled tribes to be promoted to government positions.
81st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000
The 50 percent ceiling cap for reservation of SCs and STs was removed from clause 4B of Article 16 of the Constitution with this modification. The forward carry rule for backlog vacancies for SCs and STs was established by this amendment.
86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002
Children’s education has changed as a result of this modification. It amended the Constitution to include Article 21A, which establishes the right to education for children aged 6 to 14. The right to education has now been designated as a Fundamental Right.
92nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003
Bodo, Dogri, Santhali, and Maithili were all added to the Constitution’s Eighth Schedule as a result of this modification.
99th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2014
The National Judicial Appointment Commission was established by this amendment to oversee the appointment of judges. However, the Supreme Court declared this commission illegal in 2015, and the collegium method for appointing justices was reinstated.
101st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2017
The Goods and Services Tax was reintroduced as a multi-stage, comprehensive tax as a result of this modification. Many federal and state taxes were eliminated, and the tax structure was brought into consistency. It covers the entire Indian subcontinent.
103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019
This amendment adds a 10% reservation to the economically weaker section (EWS) who are not already a reserved category under the SC, ST, or socially and economically backward sections under Articles 15 and 16, respectively. The reservation is made to gain access to government employment and admissions.
104th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2020
The time of reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and state legislatures has been extended as a result of this amendment.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Indian Amendments:
Q: What is the Indian Constitution's number of articles?
A: In the Indian Constitution, there are 448 articles. There were 395 articles in the original Indian Constitution.
Q: Is it necessary to know article/section numbers and definitions for the CLAT?
A: It is not necessary to recall all of the articles or sections; rather, it is impossible to do so. Try reading articles 12-18 to learn a few basic articles about fundamental rights, citizens' fundamental duties, and the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha.
Q: In general, how long do current affairs questions last in the CLAT?
A: For current events, you should read a newspaper that is at least 6 months old, as well as social articles, blogs, and journals, and try to keep up with current events in the political, social, and cultural arenas.
Q: Which articles, sections, and modifications in the CLAT paper are most likely to be asked?
A: CLAT and AILET frequently request the following amendments: 1st, 13th, 21st, 24th, 36th, 42nd, 44th, 52nd, 53rd, 61st, 69th, 71st, 92nd, 99th, 100th, 101st, 103rd, and 104th.
Q: In the legal component of the CLAT, what are the additional topics to study besides legal reasoning?
A: It's also a good idea to brush up on your legal skills. If you look at previous year's papers, you'll discover that legal knowledge questions have appeared in both legal aptitude and legal GK sections. Fundamental legal understanding, such as the Constitution, Amendments, Important Articles, Schedules, and Political Science. Aside from that, static GK in Economics, History (especially of the world and India), Science, Miscellaneous, Legal Maxims, and IPC Basics is required for GK.